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New Publication: External differentiation: Turkey’s role in EU agencies

External differentiation: Turkey’s role in EU agencies. Kaeding, M., Milenković, M. (2021) InDivEU Working Paper. RSC 2021/85.

Decentralised EU agencies stand for solutions to European problems, assisting in designing and implementing Europe’s future. An often neglected feature is the growing outreach of EU agencies towards third countries as a ‘participatory form of external differentiation’. To showcase the dynamic and potential of EU agencies for accession countries, this contribution focuses on Turkey’s role across EU agencies, assessing its working arrangements with EU agencies (1999-2021). We find that Turkey engages with 18 EU agencies in different forms, covering various policy areas and driven by different logics of action.